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[Animals]Some information about Dog


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The dog (Canis familiaris[4][5] or Canis lupus familiaris[5]) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf. Also called the domestic dog, it is derived from extinct gray wolves,[6][7] and the gray wolf is the dog's closest living relative.[8] The dog was the first species to be domesticated[9][8] by humans. Experts estimate that hunter-gatherers domesticated dogs more than 15,000 years ago,[7] which was before the development of agriculture.[1] Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individuals[10] and gained the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.[11] The dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.[12] Dog breeds vary widely in shape, size, and color. They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and the military, companionship, therapy, and aiding disabled people. Over the millennia, dogs became uniquely adapted to human behavior, and the human–canine bond has been a topic of frequent study.[13] This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend".[14] Taxonomy Further information: Canis lupus dingo § Taxonomic debate – the domestic dog, dingo, and New Guinea singing dog In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae, the two-word naming of species (binomial nomenclature). Canis is the Latin word meaning "dog",[15] and under this genus, he listed the domestic dog, the wolf, and the golden jackal. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris and, on the next page, classified the grey wolf as Canis lupus.[2] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its upturning tail (cauda recurvata in Latin term), which is not found in any other canid.[16] In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from the grey wolf, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog breeds having developed at a time when human communities were more isolated from each other.[17] In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies and proposed two additional subspecies, which formed the domestic dog clade: familiaris, as named by Linnaeus in 1758 and, dingo named by Meyer in 1793. Wozencraft included hallstromi (the New Guinea singing dog) as another name (junior synonym) for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mtDNA study as one of the guides informing his decision.[3] Mammalogists have noted the inclusion of familiaris and dingo together under the "domestic dog" clade[18] with some debating it.[19] In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission's Canid Specialist Group considered the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog to be feral Canis familiaris and therefore did not assess them for the IUCN Red List of ThreatenDomestication Main article: Domestication of the dog The earliest remains generally accepted to be those of a domesticated dog were discovered in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphological evidence shows that this dog was not a local wolf.[20] The dog was dated to 14,223 years ago and was found buried along with a man and a woman, all three having been sprayed with red hematite powder and buried under large, thick basalt blocks. The dog had died of canine distemper.[21] Earlier remains dating back to 30,000 years ago have been described as Paleolithic dogs, but their status as dogs or wolves remains debated[22] because considerable morphological diversity existed among wolves during the Late Pleistocene.[1] This timing indicates that the dog was the first species to be domesticated[9][8] in the time of hunter-gatherers,[7] which predates agriculture.[1] DNA sequences show that all ancient and modern dogs share a common ancestry and descended from an ancient, extinct wolf population which was distinct from the modern wolf lineage.[6][7] The dog is a classic example of a domestic animal that likely travelled a commensal pathway into domestication.[22][23] The questions of when and where dogs were first domesticated have taxed geneticists and archaeologists for decades.[9] Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years ago, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia.[10] In 2021, a literature review of the current evidence infers that the dog was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia,[20] with dogs likely accompanying the first humans to inhabit the Americas.[24] Breeds Main article: Dog breed Further information: Dog type Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth, with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds.[10][25] In the Victorian era, directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds, which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes.[8] Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years.[8][10] Since then, dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and have been subjected to artificial selection by humans. The skull, body, and limb proportions between breeds display more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour.[8] Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, hunting,[8] retrieving, and scent detection. Their personality traits include hypersocial behavior, boldness, and aggression.[8] Present-day dogs are dispersed around the world.[10] An example of this dispersal is the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era.[7]
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Main article: Dog breed Further information: Dog type Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth, with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds.[10][25] In the Victorian era, directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds, which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes.[8] Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years.[8][10] Since then, dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and have been subjected to artificial selection by humans. The skull, body, and limb proportions between breeds display more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour.[8] Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, hunting,[8] retrieving, and scent detection. Their personality traits include hypersocial behavior, boldness, and aggression.[8] Present-day dogs are dispersed around the world.[10] An example of this dispersal is the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era.[7]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog

 

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